You Should Know All Communication Model

Most of the western thinkers have given their views on communication, its absence is visible in the Indian thought tradition. Following are the major communication models of western scholars.

1. Aristotle's Communication Model 2. Murphy's Communication Model 3. Lasswell's Communication Model 4. Shannon and Weaver's Communication Model 5. Sherm's Communication Model 6. Barlow's Communication Model 7. Helical's Communication Model , 8. Thill and Bowie's communication model, 9. Lasicar, Petite and Flatley's model.

Major models of communication:

1. Aristotle's Model of Communication

Aristotle was the first to consider the communication model. Aristotle considers 3 elements important for communication – the sender, the message and the receiver (receiver). But Aristotle considers the sender more important in his model.

According to Aristotle's model, the sender (speaker) plays an important role in communication. It takes the entire charge of communication on its shoulders. The sender first prepares such a material, so that he can be successful in influencing the listeners or recipients with his thoughts. So he raises every issue in his speech that can impress the public, or what they want to hear. Aristotle says that the sender communicates in such a way that the listeners (receivers) are impressed and accordingly give feedback. According to this model, the speaker must be very careful about the choice of words and content in communication. He should understand his target audience and then prepare his speech.

The Aristotle model of communication is the widely accepted and most common model of communication where the sender sends information or messages to the receiver in order to influence them and make them respond and act accordingly. The Aristotelian model of communication is the appropriate model to excel in public spaces, seminars and lectures, where the sender makes his point by designing an effective material, communicates the message to the audience and they respond accordingly. . The important thing is that here the sender is the active member and the receiver is the passive one.

2. Murphy Model of Communication

The exponent of this model was H.A. Murphy, H.W. Hildebrand and J. P. Thomas, which he jointly rendered in 1947 AD. According to this model, there are six main elements of the communication process-






feedback or feedback

In this model the sender selects a message and transmits it. The sender chooses an appropriate medium to send the message, through which the receiver completes the communication by giving his/her feedback on the received message.

3. Lasswell's model of communication

Lasswell presented the model of communication in 1948 AD, which is called the world's first systematic model. According to this model, the sender can use the appropriate channel to influence the receiver with his ideas. While Aristotle considered the sender important, Lasswell gave more importance to the medium. His model was in the form of a question. According to Lasswell- The best way to understand any process of communication is to seek answers to the following five questions-

1. Who? (Sender)
2. Said what? (message)
3. Through what? (communication medium)
4. For whom? (audience)
5. With what effect? (influence)

Lasswell's model is based on a linear communication process, which therefore acts in a straight line. It does not explicitly state the feedback, in fact Lasswell has incorporated the feedback under the influence. The circumstances of the communication have not been clearly mentioned. The five parts into which communication is divided are all interrelated. Interference arising during communication is ignored.

4. Shannon and Weaver's Communication Model (Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication)

The Shannon and Weaver model is the most popular model of communication and is widely accepted around the world. This model was developed by C. E. Shannon and W. Weaver presented in 1949 AD. According to the Shannon and Weaver model the message actually originates from the person who has the idea or who has the information. This model is mainly concerned with the technical communication of radio and telephone. According to them, five elements are involved in the communication process, which starts from the information source and is transmitted by the sender to the receiver in the form of a message crossing the noise source.

According to the Shaman and Weaver model, the sender plays an important role in communication, which collects ideas from the information source and transmits the message to its recipient through communication. The sender sends the message in a message bound manner. In this model, noise or external noise is also given importance. They were of the opinion that in the communication process, it is natural to find noise in the medium through which messages are transmitted, due to which inaccuracy is also found in the message. That is why this model emphasizes on converting the message into sign language so that the pure message can be communicated by removing these impurities.

5. Schramm's Model of Communication

After knowing the Shannon and Weaver models, we will now move to Sharam's model.

Coming to Shannon's model, because its roots are related to the Shannon and Weaver model, Sharam presented the new model on the basis of the same. In fact, he introduced three models of communication, in which the first model was just an imitation of the Shannon and Weaver model. Wilbur Sherm introduced this model of communication in 1954. The difference was that they rejected the noise concept of the Shannon and Weaver model, according to which impurities such as noise do not occur in communication, nor is the message ever impure.

His second model is related to the medium of communication and the mode of transmission. Actually information is of no use unless it is carefully worded and conveyed to others through proper channels. Encoding plays a very important role in this process as it initiates the process of communication by converting thought into content. When the information reaches the receiver, his main responsibility is to understand what the speaker wants to convey. Unless the receiver will be able to understand or decode the information what the sender wants to convey, the message is really of no use. Thus encoding and decoding are the two most important factors of an effective communication without which no information can ever flow between two persons. According to Sherm's model, coding and decoding are two essential processes of effective communication which must be conveyed through an appropriate medium.

In the third model he emphasizes that communication is incomplete until the sender receives a response from the receiver. Any communication where the sender does not receive a response is not a complete communication and thus ineffective. He has given importance to both the recipient and the feedback given by him.

Sherm was of the opinion that a person's knowledge, experience and cultural background also play an important role in communication. Individuals from different cultures, religions or backgrounds interpret messages in different ways, which cannot be ignored in communication. Any message can get distorted due to wrong body movements, gestures, facial expressions and many other factors.

6. Berlo's Model of Communication

The Aristotelian model of communication places the speaker in the central position and suggests that the speaker is the one who drives the whole communication, while the Berlo model of communication emphasizes the ability to perceive. Perception here refers to the knowledge obtained from the senses like eyes, nose, ears, etc. According to this model, the sender converts the message into sign language on the basis of his knowledge and experience and then sends it to the listener through any medium. After that the receiver receives the message according to his knowledge, conscience and culture.
Barlow's communication model works on the SMCR model. In SMCR model-

1. S-Source (S-Source)

Communication Skills



Social System


2. M-Message (M-Message)






3. C-Channel (C – Channel)

4. R-Receiver

There are several flaws in Berlo's model of communication. According to Barlow model of communication, for communication the speaker and the listener should be on a common level (ground) which is sometimes not practical in real scenario. Apart from this, medium, resources, feedback etc. have also not been given importance in this model.

7. Helical Model of Communication

Another very important model of communication is the helical model of communication. The helical model of communication was proposed by Frank Dance in 1967 to shed some more light on the communication process. Frank Dance thought of a communication process similar to a helix.

According to the helical model of communication, the process of communication develops from the time a person is born and continues till the last moment. All living organisms start communicating from the very first day of their birth. When seeds are planted, they send a message to the farmer that they need water, fertilizers and manure. When a plant emerges from a seed, it begins to communicate its need for water, sunlight, manure and fertilizers, thus supporting the helical model of communication. The same applies to animals, birds, fish and all living beings.

8. Thill and Bowie models of communication

John Til and Courtland L. According to Bowie, business communication is a series of events with five stages that connect the sender and the receiver. According to this model, the communicator has an idea, the sender converts this idea into a message, transmits it through the appropriate medium, and transmits the message to the receiver, taking its (i.e. the receiver's) response. This is how the process of communication takes place.

The components included in Thill and Bowie's model are:

Thought, conversion of thought into message, communication of message, receiving message by the receiver and feedback by the receiver.

9. Lesikar, Pettit and Flatley model

This model is termed as sensitivity model.

Gone In this, the communication process starts with the transmission of the message and ends with the repetition of the sequence (The Cycle Repeated). These scholars clarified that the sensory system has an important contribution in the communication process because the message is received by the receiver through the sensory system. The sensing system collects the speech as well as some other information already available by searching for the speech. In this, the dialogue is kept separate from the noise available in the message medium so that there is no impurity in the message. Here the meaning given to the communication may also elicit some response from the sensory system which may be sent to the sender of the message in verbal or non-verbal form.
The following components are involved in this process:

Lascar, Petite and Flatley models

According to this model, communication is a dynamic process consisting of a series of actions and reactions related to the achievement of a particular objective or goal. Therefore, communication is a two-way process where both the communication ability of the communicator and the receptive ability of the receiver are important. Feedback has a very important role for a successful communication process because without it the communication process remains incomplete.

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