What is Oral Communication and Its Models?

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Oral Communication: Forms and Merits | Hindi | Directing | Management

Meaning of Oral Communication Process 2. Characteristics of Oral Communication 3. Utility 4. Essentials 5. Merits 6. Limitations.


Meaning of Oral Communication Process

Characteristics of Oral Communication

Utility of Oral Communication

Essentials of Effective Oral Communication

Merits of Oral Communication

Limitations of Oral Communication

1. Meaning of Oral Communication Process:

When any communication and information is transmitted by speaking orally, it is called oral communication. In oral communication, information is exchanged through face-to-face oral conversation. This communication can be done through direct personal conversation as well as through indirect personal conversation.

In the second method, the message-sender uses devices such as telephones. Verbal communication is the most powerful means of creating two way clarity. The officer giving the message can not only give the fulfillment and correct information of his idea but can also know the understanding and reaction of the officer receiving the message. At the same time, the receiver of the message can not only understand the message, but can also clear his doubts and doubts as well. Most communication in an organization takes the form of one-on-one interactions.

2. Characteristics of Oral Communication:

The following are the characteristics of oral communication:

(i) In this process both the sender and the receiver of the message are face to face, that is, the exchange of ideas is done orally.

(ii) It is a two-way communication system, because the sender of the message can know immediately whether the message has been understood by the receiver or not.

(iii) There is no fear of breach of privacy in it (being limited) and red-tapism is also not encouraged and its amendment is also facilitated.

(iv) In verbal communication there is conversation with each other, hence it promotes mutual relations.

(v) Oral communication can be of two types:

(vi) Direct conversation, and B. Indirect conversation.

Under direct conversation comes face to face and group talk while under indirect conversation comes talking on telephone etc.

3. Utility of Oral Communication:

Verbal communication is particularly useful in the following situations:

(i) when it is not possible to give the notices in writing;

(ii) when it is necessary to keep the information confidential;

(iii) when a particular message is to be conveyed to a group of people;

(iv) When the recipient of the message is not educated.

(A) Mutual Discussion:

Interpersonal conversation Interpersonal conversation is the most simple and convenient means of communication because in this two people sitting face to face can discuss all their disputes and express their personal feelings. It is considered best for conversation on confidential topics. Direct and group conversation can be done easily.

This type of interpersonal conversation involves the following methods:

(i) Personal Conversation;

(ii) group meeting;

(iii) departmental meeting;

(iv) Inter-Departmental Meeting;

(B) Mechanical Devices:

The following mechanical devices are used for oral communication.

(i) Telephone:

Telephone is considered to be the most prevalent and popular means in modern business organizations. By using this, quick contact, direct contact, confidentiality, time, labor and cost are saved. Its use is considered a good means to establish contact with other departments in the same department.

(ii) Internal Telephone Communication:

Due to the medium of communication in large business organizations, it is considered to be very convenient and an effective means of saving time and labor, because by this the officers can convey their message to their colleagues or subordinates while sitting at their place.

(iii) Signals:

To call a person, an employee or a peon, it can be conveniently called by ringing a bell, by ringing a buzzer, or by lighting a signal. This sign is only a symbol that a certain person is needed, but the message begins after his arrival.

(iv) Dictating Machine:

At present, ghostly instruments are used more for giving verbal messages. The use of this instrument is more beneficial when the person giving the message wants to give an important message and the person receiving the message is not in the office at that time. One receives his message by playing the record on this device as per his convenience.

One of the main differences between verbal and non-verbal communication is that in verbal communication we

We have complete control over the message. We communicate only what we want. But in non-verbal communication, we do not have complete control over the communication. Many times it happens that what we want to communicate is not there, but in its place some other message is broadcasted.

4. Essentials of Effective Oral Communication:

Although there are many limitations of oral communication, still oral communication is the primary and important medium of communication in the organization.

Effective verbal communication scholar Francis J. Bergin (Franscis J. Bergin) has given seven elements which are called by the name of “Seven C” which are as follows:

Clear, Complete, Concise, Corrective, Concrete, Coureous.

In brief, the essential elements of effective communication are the following:

(i) Clear Pronunciation and Appropriate Word Choice:

In oral communication, the pronunciation of the speaker should be clear and proper words and pure sentences should be used for the message.

(ii) Natural Voice and Logical Sequence:

In order to convey verbal communication effectively, the speaker should always use his natural voice. Time can provide its verbal communication effectively only when the ideas and information of the message are expressed in a systematic order.

(iii) Brevity:

For the effective expression of verbal communication, it is necessary that the message should be expressed in a concise manner. Unnecessary words should not be used and Hackneyed Phrases and Cliches "like I meant to say" i.e. "did you understand", "as I meant to say" etc. should not be used.

(iv) Precision:

In order to express verbal communication more effectively, it is necessary to express accurately. For example, instead of “come to the office early tomorrow”, “come to the office tomorrow at 8 am” should be used.

(v) Conviction:

The verbal message should be expressed in a carefully planned form, keeping in mind the objectives. The more confident and determined the verbal message, the more effective it will be.

To make oral communication effective, it is necessary that communication should not be done in haste. The speaker should communicate fully assuming that the recipient has no prior knowledge of the message and should also take into account the reaction of the recipient. If he has any confusion regarding the message, he should be given an opportunity to clear the confusion.

5. Merits of Oral Communication:

Oral communication has all the advantages which are demerits of written communication.

It mainly consists of the following properties:

(i) It saves time:

This saves a lot of time, if a quick decision has to be taken regarding any work or if some work has to be done immediately, then the message should be sent orally. Even when the workload is high, managers want to be relieved of their workload by giving messages through telephone etc. immediately and also give instructions orally to their subordinates. This also helps them to complete the work quickly. If the same process is done through written communication, then all the time will be spent in writing and reading.

(ii) Powerful Means of Control:

Most of the high officials prefer to convey the message orally because verbal communication is a very powerful means of control.

(iii) Helpful in Saving Money:

Verbal communication also saves money in most situations, especially when it is within an organization. The cost of local phone is very less and the message reaches immediately.

(iv) Personal Influence:

In verbal communication, personal effect, clarification of the message and ease of estimating the effect, ease of change and motivation of work, etc. can be taken advantage of.

(v) Presentation of Voice and Facial Expressions:

Through oral communication, the sender of the message can explain the subject in detail by changing the tone of voice, speaking in high voice or low voice, angry or happy, which is not possible in written communication. This also increases the efficiency of oral communication.

(vi) Clarity of Communication:

The biggest advantage of verbal communication is that the speaker can understand immediately whether the recipient has received a certain message or not, in what form it has been received and what effect it has had on him. This effect can be positive or negative. If the recipient has not understood anything, he can understand it in detail. Changing the message in written communication is really a complex task.

(vii) Useful for Communication in Meeting and Groups:

Oral communication is mainly beneficial when talking in meetings or with groups.

(viii) Faith of Employees:

Although employees feel more secure in written messages.
Still, more trust is given to verbal messages because explanation gets place in it.

(ix) Soundness of Mutual Relations:

In verbal communication, there is a conversation with each other, hence it promotes mutual relation. One of the main differences between verbal and non-verbal communication is that in verbal communication we have complete control over our message. We communicate only what we want. But in non-verbal communication, we do not have complete control over the communication. Many times it happens that what we want to communicate is not there, but instead some other message is broadcasted.

6. Limitations of Oral Communication:

Oral communication also has many important limitations, some of the major limitations are as follows:

(i) Verbal communication is not possible when both the sender and the receiver of the message stay away from each other and there is no verbal communication device available.

(ii) It is very difficult to determine the responsibility in oral messages.

(iii) Verbal communication is not possible in messages that are large and complex. These messages can be sent only by writing. In oral communication, only short and simple messages can be given conveniently.

(iv) Oral messages have no legal validity unless they are taped or kept as a permanent record. To have legal validity, the message must be in writing.

(v) Oral messages cannot be remembered for long. Within a period of about a month, more than 20% of the original messages are forgotten.

(vi) Although it is true that there is a proper opportunity for clarification in oral messages, yet there remains the possibility of doubt and doubt. A verbal message is no longer a proof of what was said earlier.

(vii) Oral messages cannot save time and money in every situation. Many meetings, gatherings, seminars take place without any result. In this situation both time and money are wasted.

(viii) Oral communication is not always effective. It depends on certain conditions, in the absence of which they become ineffective. It always depends on the behavior of the communication and the receiver of the message.

(ix) Verbal communication often promotes confusion if the speaker does not organize and present his thoughts cleverly or the receiver of the communication does not hear the communication.

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